Halice Internet Glossary
 DEFINITION NOT HERE OR NEED MORE INFO?

A

ACK: (Acknowledgement)  A message sent to indicate that data has been received.

Active Server Pages:  See ASP.

AD:  See Administrative Domain.

Add-in:  A mini program which runs in conjunction with a Web browser or other application that enhances the functionality of that program.  In order for the add-in to run, the main application must be running as well.

Address:  The location of an Internet resource.  An e-mail address takes the form of webmaster@halice.com.  A Web address takes the form of http://www.halice.com.  Also see http.

Administrative Domain: (AD)  A collection of hosts and routers, and the interconnecting networks, managed by a single administrative authority.

American National Standards Institute: (ANSI)  This organization is responsible for approving U.S. standards in many areas, including computers and communications.  Standards approved by this organization are often called ANSI standards.  ANSI is a member of ISO, International Organization for Standardization.

Anchor:  Either the starting point or destination of a hyperlink.

Anonymous FTP:  An anonymous FTP site allows Internet users to login and download documents, files and programs from a remote computer without having to use a private user identification (user-id) and password.  To login, you typically enter anonymous as the user-id and your e-mail address as the password.  Also see FTP.

ANSI:  See American National Standards Institute.

Applet:  A small application (program) that can be embedded in a Web page that allows for a dynamic function, such as waving flags, or moving text, or hyperlink buttons that mutate when you move your cursor over them, as seen at Halice Web Development and Hosting.  Also see Java.

Archie:  The system used in searching FTP sites for files.

ASCII: (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)  The worldwide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower case Latin numerals, punctuation, etc.  There are 128 standard ASCII characters, each of which is represented by a seven-digit number, 0000000 through 1111111.  ASCII files are also known as plain text files.

ASP: (Active Server Pages)  A dynamic database-driven scripting language that is designed to function server-side on Windows NT Servers.

Attachment:  A file or other document that is sent with an e-mail message.  This file is said to be "attached" to the e-mail message.

Attribute:  Optional HTML commands that can be added to markup tags to facilitate variations in the way tags are displayed or used.

AU:  A common audio file format for UNIX systems that utilizes the suffix (.au), as in "filename.au."

AVI: (Audio/Video Interleaved)  A common video file format that utilizes the suffix (.avi), as in "filename.avi."  Video quality can be very good at smaller resolutions, but files tend to be rather large.


B

Back:  A browser command that allows you to return to the Web page prior to the one you are viewing, usually by pushing the "BACK" button in the upper left corner of the browser window, or found under the browser's "GO" menu bar category.

Bandwidth:  The range of electrical frequencies that determines the volume of information that can be transmitted over a network (the Internet) at a given time.  Usually measured in bits per second (bps).

Baud:  Often confused with how many "bits per second" (bps) a modem can transmit data, technically it is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value.  For example, a 1200 bit per second modem actually runs at 300 baud but it moves four bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).

Binary:  The system by which combinations of 0's and 1's are used to represent any type of data stored on a computer.

Binary File:  A non-ASCII file that contains special codes that can be destroyed when transmitted over the Internet.  For example, word processing files, sound files, graphics, etc. See UUEncode.

Bit:  (Binary digIT)  The smallest unit of data that a computer recognizes.  There are eight bits in one byte.

Bitmap File:  A common image format (.bmp) defined by a rectangular pattern of pixels.

BPS: (Bits Per Second)  A measurement of the volume of data that a modem is capable of transmitting.  Typical modem speeds today are 14.4K bps (14,400 bits per second) and 28.8K bps.  ISDN offers transfer rates of 128K bps.  Also see bandwidth.

Bookmark:  A pointer to a particular Web site.  Within browsers, you can bookmark interesting pages so you can return to them easily.  See hotlist.

Broadband:  A network, such as a cable system, capable of delivering multiple high-capacity services simultaneously.

Browser:  An application (program) used to display HTML documents.  Browsers may be used to view World Wide Web pages.  Examples include Netscape Navigator, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Mosaic.

Byte:  A set of eight bits that represent a single character such as the letter "a."


C

Cache:  A region of memory where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access. Many browsers temporarily keep copies of documents in a cache directory on the local hard disk so that they do not have to be reloaded over the network each time they are referenced.

Cascading Style Sheets: (CSS)  The term "cascading style sheets" refers to how more than one style sheet can simultaneously effect the presentation of the same elements within a single HTML document (Web page).  Conflicts between style sheet presentation rules is avoided by weighting the properties included in the rule set of one style sheet over another.  A single style sheet can also effect the presentation of any number of HTML documents, allowing for continuity of page presentation within a given Web site.

CGI: (Common Gateway Interface)  An interface for running external programs or scripts under an information server, such as a Web server.  A common use of a CGI script is handling data from HTML forms.

Chat:  A system that allows for online communication between Internet users.  See IRC.

Clickable Image:  See image map.

Client:  A general term for a computer or application that can access and retrieve information from a server computer.  A Web client is the same as a Web browser.

Client-Server Protocol:  A communication protocol between networked computers in which the services of one computer (the server) are requested by the other (the client).

Compressed:  Data files available for download from the Internet are typically compacted in order to save server space and reduce transfer times.  Typical file extensions for compressed files include zip (DOS/Windows) and tar (UNIX).

Container:  See markup tag.

Cookies:  A very small piece of information sent by a Web server to a Web browser (software program) that the browser saves and then sends back to the server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the server.  Most frequently used to customize or personalize and thus enhance a user's visit to a Web site.  NOTE: Cookies do not read your hard drive or send your life story to the CIA.

CPC:  Cost per click.  Banner space may be sold on this basis.  A "click" occurs each time the banner is followed by a user.

CPM:  Cost per thousand hits.  A term frequently used in relation to web advertising.  Banner space on web sites is frequently sold on a CPM basis. See also CPC.

CSLIP: (Compressed SLIP)  See SLIP.

CSS:  See Cascading Style Sheets.

Cyberspace:  The nebulous "place" where humans interact over computer networks.  Same as virtual space.


D

Daemon: (Disk And Execution MONitor)  A program that is not invoked explicitly but lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur.

Declaration:  A declaration is a style sheet rule that specifies the display attributes for that rule.  The declaration may consist of a property, followed by a colon (:), followed by a value or may be left empty.

Deprecated Elements and Attributes:  Elements and attributes that were included in previous versions of HTML but were found to be unnecessary or to provide functionality that is available through preferable alternatives.  Although these elements are still part of the current standard, their use is discouraged, and they may be dropped from new versions of the standard.

Dial-up Connection:  A connection to the Internet via phone and modem.  Connection types include PPP and SLIP.

DLL:  See dynamic-link library.

Direct Connection:  A connection made directly to the Internet which is much faster than a dial-up connection.

Dithering:  A process that represents a color by intermingling pixels in similar colors to approximate the desired color.  It is often used by computers with lower-resolution graphic cards to display images that were created on high-resolution systems.

Domain:  The Internet is divided into smaller sets known as domains, including .com (business), .gov (government), .edu (educational) and others.

Domain Name:  The unique name that identifies an Internet Web site, such as www.halice.com, the domain name that distinguishes this Web site.  Domain names allow you to reference Internet sites without having to remember their numerical address.

Download:  The process of retrieving documents, files and programs from a remote computer to your computer.  The opposite action is upload where a local file is copied to a server.

DTD: (Data Type Definition)  It provides a formal description of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) with respect to SGML.

Dynamic-Link Library:  Routines that can be shared by different programs.  They are typically stored in files with the extension "DLL."


E

Element:  A portion of an HTML document delineated by markup tags.  Elements represent structure such as a paragraph or a heading, or a desired behavior such as a font type.

E-mail: (electronic mail)  Messages sent from person to person electronically over the Internet.

E-mail Address: (electronic mail address)  The address that is used to send electronic mail to a specified destination.  For example, you can e-mail me by clicking on the following hyperlink, webmaster@halice.com, then filling out the e-mail form that should appear.

Emoticon:  A combination of characters that form a facial expression.  For example, if you turn your head sideways, the characters :-) make a smiley face, and the characters 8-) make a four-eyed smiley.  Frequently used in e-mail messages to convey a particular tone.  If you wanted to jokingly insult somebody, without starting a flame war, you could write, "I think you are a total loser :-)".

Empty Element:  HTML elements that have no content.  Examples include the horizontal rule <HR> and line break <BR>.

Entity:  An HTML symbol representing a special character.

Ethernet:  A very common method of networking computers in a local area network (LAN).  Ethernet can transmit approximately 10 million bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

Eudora:  A popular freeware and commercial e-mail management program.

Exchange:  Microsoft's integrated fax and e-mail program designed for Windows 95.

Extensible Markup Language:  See XML.


F

FAQ: (Frequently Asked Questions)  A collection of frequently asked questions on a topic and the answers to each question written by someone who is supposed to be able to give you an intelligent and helpful answers BUT don't count on it.

Finger:  An application that shows information about all of the users logged on to a system.  It can also display information about a particular user.  It typically shows full name, last login time, idle time, terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable).  It may also display plan and project files left by the user.

Fire Wall:  For security purposes, a combination of hardware and software that protects computer networks against unauthorized entry by Internet users.

Flame:  An insulting message exchanged via e-mail or within newsgroups.  The most common recipients of flames are insensitive users who send their commercial e-mail messages (called junk e-mail) to other users.  A series of flames are known as flame wars.

Form:  Fill-out forms are HTML tags that were added to the HTML 2.0 standard which enable Web page documents to display interactive elements such as radio buttons, checkboxes and text-entry boxes.  At the top and bottom of this page is a hyperlink that says "Definition not here or need more info?"  This hyperlink leads to the "Halice Internet Glossary Inquiry" FORM that you can utilize to ask about a word or phrase not found in this glossary or request a broader definition for an existing word or phrase.

FreeWare:  Software that is available for download and unlimited use without charge.  Compare to shareware.

FTP: (File Transfer Protocol)  A set of rules for exchanging files between computers via the Internet, whether uploading or downloading.  FTP file transfers are usually faster than transfers utilizing a browser program.

FYI: (For Your Information)  FYI also represents a series of informational documents about the Internet published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).


G

Gateway:  Computer hardware and software that allow users to connect from one network to another.

GIF: (Graphics Interchange Format)  A common image format developed by Compuserve that utilizes up to 256 colors. It is the most widely supported image format on the Web.  Also see Interlaced GIF.

Gopher:  A menu-driven text based information service developed at the University of Minnesota.  Gopher clients can get information from any accessible Gopher server.


H

Head:  The beginning of an HTML document.  The head portion of an HTML document should contain the document's title.  It may also contain meta tags, style sheets and scripts.  Head can also refer to a computer, usually one that is connected to a network.

Helper Application:  A program allowing you to view multimedia files that your Web browser cannot handle internally, such as images, audio and video files.  The file must be downloaded before it will be displayed/played.  Plug-ins allow you to actually view the file over the Internet without downloading first.

Hit:  Used in reference to the World Wide Web, a hit means a single request from a Web browser for a single item from a Web server or Web site.  In order for the Web browser to display a page that contains three graphics, four hits would occur on the server: One for the HTML document (page) and one for each of the three graphics documents.

Home Page:  The first page of a Web site, OR the Web site that automatically loads each time you launch your browser.

Host:  Any computer on a network that is a repository of services available to other computers on the network.

Hotlist:  The term used in some browsers to describe the list of URLs that it remembers.  Also known as a bookmark list.

Hot Java:  A Web browser developed by Sun Microsystems that takes full advantage of applets written in the Java programming language.

HTML: (HyperText Markup Language)  A collection of tags typically used in the development of Web pages.

HTTP: (HyperText Transfer Protocol)  A set of instructions for communication between a server and a World Wide Web client.

HTTPd: (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Daemon)  See daemon.

Hyperlink:  Usually an underlined word or phrase that appears on a Web page that when clicked upon directs your browser to another screen or Web page.  See anchors.

HTTP server:  A server process running at a Web site which sends out Web pages in response to an HTTP request from the client's browser (your computer).  Also see server.

Hypertext:  A document that contains links to other documents, commonly seen in Web pages and help files.


I

IIS: (Microsoft's Internet Information Server)  A server system that works in conjunction with a Windows NT operating system.  When someone on the Internet or on an intranet requests a certain web page, IIS retrieves that page.  IIS determines whether the page's extension is .html or .asp (Active Server Pages).  If the extension is .html, IIS sends the page to the surfer's browser.  If the extension is .asp, IIS runs the ASP code server-side for that page and creates a pure HTML page on the server.  The resulting HTML is then sent by IIS back to the surfer's browser.

Image Map:  An image map is a graphical image containing "hot spots."  When a hot spot is clicked on by a user, the browser loads the corresponding document.  Client-side image maps refer to image maps which are interpreted by the browser.  Server-side image maps are interpreted by the server.

Information Superhighway: (Infobahn)  The terms were coined to describe a possible upgrade to the existing Internet through the use of fiber optic and/or coaxial cable to allow for high speed data transmission.  This highway does not exist; the Internet of today is not an information superhighway.

IRC: (Internet Relay Chat)  The system allowing Internet users to conduct online text based communication with one or more other users.

ISDN: (Integrated Services Digital Network)  A system of all digital, wide bandwidth telephone lines allowing for the simultaneous delivery of audio, video and data.  Data travels at 128K bps.

ISP: (Internet Service Provider)  The company which provides you with a connection to the Internet via either a Dial-up Connection or a Direct Connection.

IP Address: (Internet Protocol Address)  Every computer on the Internet has a unique identifying number, such as 207.5.47.139.  Click http://207.5.47.139/home.

Interlaced GIF:  The scanlines in an interlaced GIF have been rearranged so that when it is viewed in a browser with appropriate support, it first appears with poor resolution and then, over time, improves in resolution until the entire image is loaded.  This is a useful technique for giving users a quick impression of the image, without having to wait for it to be entirely loaded.

International Organization for Standardization: (ISO)  A voluntary, non treaty organization founded in 1946 which is responsible for creating international standards in many areas, including computers and communications.  Its members are the national standards organizations of the 89 member countries, including ANSI for the U.S.  See American National Standards Institute and Open Systems Interconnection.  [Source: TAN]

Internet:  A worldwide network of computers communicating via an agreed upon set of Internet protocol.  Odds are that if you are reading this document, you are probably on the Internet right now (just in case you didn't know).

Internet Address:  An IP address that uniquely identifies a node on the Internet.

Intranet:  A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet but that is only for internal use.  As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the Internet are being used in private networks.  For example, many companies have web servers that are available only to employees.  Note that an intranet may not actually be an internet -- it may simply be a network.

IRC: (Internet Relay Chat)  A worldwide "party line" protocol that allows one to converse with other people on the Internet in real time via typed comments.


J

Java:  A programming language, similar to C++, created by Sun Microsystems for developing applets that are capable of running on any computer regardless of the operating system.

JavaScript:  Developed by Netscape, JavaScript is the first scripting language used on the Web.  It is an object based scripting language with some similarity to Java.

JPEG: (Joint Photographic Experts Group)  A common image format that can be utilized with HTML documents (Web pages) for photographs and other types of images that require high resolution and up to 16 million colors.  Nearly all images seen on Web pages are either GIF or JPEG format.


K

Killfile:  Found within newsreaders, a list of undesirable authors or threads to filter out.


L

LAN: (Local Area Network)  A network of computers confined within a small area, such as an office building.

Link:  Another name for a hyperlink.

Listserv:  An electronic mailing list typically used by a broad range of discussion groups.  When you subscribe to a listserv, you will receive periodic e-mail messages about the topic you have requested.

Lurking:  The act of reading through mail lists and newsgroups without posting any messages.  Considered good netiquette to get the feel of the topic before adding your own two cents.

Lynx:  A popular text (non-graphical) World Wide Web browser.


M

Mailing List:  A list of e-mail addresses to which messages are sent.  You can subscribe to a mailing lists typically by sending an e-mail to the contact address with the following in the body of the message: the word subscribe, the name of the list, and your e-mail address.

Markup Language:  A language that is used to specify document formats by embedding tags within the document.

Markup Tag:  The tags used to denote elements within a document.  These tags are then interpreted by browsers in order to properly display the document.  Most elements include a starting tag, content, and an end tag.

Meta Tag:  The meta element belongs in the head portion of an HTML document and provides meta information about the information in your document.  For example, a set if meta tags can give certain search engines info about a Web page.  Another meta tag can command your browser to refresh a Web page as it loads so you see the page's most recently added information.

Microsoft:  The world's largest operating system and application software development company.  Their products include Windows 95, 98 and NT, MS Office, as well as the Web browser Internet Explorer and many others.

MIDI: (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) A high quality audio file format.

MIME: (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)  A protocol for allowing e-mail messages to contain various types of media (text, audio, video, images, etc.).

Mirror Site:  An Internet site setup as an alternate to a busy site; contains copies of all the files stored at the primary location.

Mosaic:  One of the first graphical World Wide Web browsers developed at NCSA.

MPEG: (Motion Picture Experts Group)  A video file format offering excellent quality in a relatively small file.  Video files found on the Internet are frequently stored in the MPEG format.

Multimedia:  A combination of media types on a single document, including: text, graphics, animation, audio and video.


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